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Articles and papers

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Merger specific articles and working papers


Ioulia Kampouridi, 'Arguments for the EU-US Convergence and against a Global Merger Control Regime' (2015) 38(1) World Competition 107–132


external linkCecil Saehoon Chung, Kyoung Yeon Kim, Kyu Hyun Kim, 'Early Signs of Protectionist Merger Control in Korea? Probably No, At Least Not Yet' (October 2014(2)) CPI Antitrust Chronicle

External linkMatthew O'Regan, Burges Salmo, 'United Kingdom Merger Control: Recent Developments in the Failing Firm Defence' (11 September 2014) Kluwer Competition Law Blog

External linkMark Jones, 'Substantial Reform of EU Merger Control on the Cards' (15 July 2014) Antitrust Connect Blog

External linkYavuz Karagok and Samuel Rutz, 'Towards optimal merger notification regimes: evidence from Switzerland' (2014) 2(2) Journal of Antitrust Enforcement 451-483

Benjamin R. Kern, 'Innovation Markets, Future Markets, or Potential Competition: How Should Competition Authorities Account for Innovation Competition in Merger Reviews?' (2014)(2) 37 World Competition 173–206

External linkK K Sharma, 'Merger Review in China and South East Asia: Does It Smell of Protectionism?' (October 2014(2)) CPI Antitrust Chronicle


External linkMalcolm B Coate, 'The Use of Natural Experiments in Merger Analysis' (advanced access 2012) J Antitrust Enforcement 1-31 (full 2013 citation to come)

External linkJean-Etienne de Bettingnies and Thomas W Ross, 'Mergers, Agency Costs, and Social Welfare' (2013) Journal of Law, Economics and Organization

External linkDeborah L. Feinstein1 (Director, Bureau of Competition, FTC), 'The Significance of Consent Orders in the Federal Trade Commission’s Competition Enforcement Efforts' (GCR Live, New York, NY, 17 September 2013)

Ilene Knable Gotts, ‘Navigating Multijurisdictional Merger Reviews: Suggestions from a Practitioner’ (2013) 9(2) Competition Law International 149

George A Hay and E Jane Murdoch, 'A tale of two cities: From Davids Holdings to Metcash' (2013) 20 Competition & Consumer Law Journal 213

Simon Hirsbrunner, 'The Converted Missionary: Germany Revises its Merger Control Regime' (April 2013) 9(1) Competition Law International 67

Katri Paas-Mohando ‘Do small economies need specific rules for substantive aspects of merger control?’ (2013) 34(5) European Competition Law Review 260

Michael Pickford, 'A comparison of merger regulation in New Zealand and the United States' (2012) 20 CCLJ 95

Richard Steuer, Jodi Simali and John Roberti, 'Competition Law in Merger Transactions: Managing and Allocating Risk in the New Normal' (April 2013) 9(1) Competition Law International 31

External linkAlexandr Svetlicinii and Külliki Lugenberg, 'Merger Remedies in a Small Market Economy: Empirical Evidence from the Baltic States' (2013) 6(1) Baltic Journal of Law & Politics 1-26

Dan Wi, 'China's Anti-Monopoly Law and its Merger Enforcement: Convergence and Flexibility' (2011) Journal of International Economic Law 14(4) 807-844

David Young, 'Acquiring power: The ACCC's Loy Yang Power decision and the legacy of Australian Gas Light Company v ACCC (No 3) (2013) 20 Competition & Consumer Law Journal 227


External linkLaurent Benzoni, Julien Pellefigue, 'Mergers control: For a reconsideration of the structural analysis' (2012) Concurrences Competition Laws Journal N° 4-2012, n°49477

External linkRachel Brandenburger, 'Merger Enforcement in the Americas: Update from the U.S. Department of Justice' (New York State Bar Association Summer Merger Forum, New York, New York, 17 July 2012)

External linkRachel Brandenburger, 'Recent Developments in Merger Control: Views from the U.S. Department of Justice's Antitrust Division' (International Bar Association's 16th Annual Competition Conference, Florence, Italy, 14 September 2012)

Oliver Budzinski, International Antitrust Institutions (July 4, 2012). Ilmenau Economics Discussion Papers, Vol. 17, No. 72, July 2012. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2100576

External linkRiccardo Celli, Sophie Stephanou and Killian Kehoe, 'The new UK regulatory regime: How will the reforms affect the international business world?' (15 Mary 2012) Competition Law Insight

External linkMalcolm B Coate, 'Collusion Theories in Merger Analysis: Still Alive and Kicking' (2012) 8(1) Competition Policy International 104

External linkMalcolm B Coate and Jeffrey H Fischer, ‘Market Definition – Still Needed After All These Years’ (2012)

External linkDavina Garrod and Miguel Vaz, 'UK Merger Control: Riding the Winds of Change' in Global Competition Review (in association with Bingham McCutchen), The European Antitrust Review 2012, pages 159-164

External linkNicolas Harle, Philippe Ombregt and Karel Cool, 'Merger Control and Practice in the BRIC Countries vs. The EU and the US: Review Thresholds' (INSEAD Working Paper No 2012/100/ST) (at SSRN)

Ken Heyer, 'Optimal Remedies for Anticompetitive Mergers' (Spring 2012) Antitrust 26

External linkJohn B Kirkwood, 'Powerful Buyers and Merger Enforcement' (Accepted paper, October 2012, Boston University Law Review) (SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1809985)

External linkNadine Mouy, David Tayar, Nathalie Jalabert-Doury, Bernard Amory, Serge Clerckx, 'The pre-notification phase' (2012) Concurrences Competition Laws Journal N° 4-2012, n°49237, p. 12-24

External linkCatherine Prieto, Nadine Mouy, Philippe Rincazaux, 'How to deal with transnational mergers notifications?' (November 2012) Concurrences Competition Laws JournalN° 4-2012, n°49306

External linkD Daniel Sokol and William Blumenthal, 'Merger Control: Key International Norms and Differences' in Ariel Ezrachi (ed), International Research Handbook on Competition Law (2012)

Alexandr Svetlicinii and Külliki Lugenberg, ‘Merger remedies in a small market economy: the Estonian experience’ (2012) 33(10) European Competition Law Review 475-481

External linkAlexandr Svetlicinii, ‘Illegality of Conduct in EU Merger Control: Should We Trust the 'Summary Analysis'?’ (2012) 6 L'Europe Unie/United Europe 139 <http://ssrn.com/abstract=2320417> accessed 18 September 2013

Anne C Witt, 'From Airtours to Ryanair: Is the more Economic Approach to EU Merger Law Really About More Economics?' (2012) 49 Common Market Law Review 217-246

Danielle Wood and Morelle Bull, 'Holding out for a hero: Assessing mergers between potential competitors' (2012) 20 CLLJ 125


External linkJoaquin Almunia, 'Policy Objectives in Merger Control' (Speech delivered at FOrdham Competition Conference, New York, 8 September 2011)

Marco Botta, 'Merger Remedies Imposed by the Competition Authorities of the Emerging Economies' (2011) 34(2) World Competition 321-338

External linkDaniel A Crane, 'Rethinking Merger Efficiencies' (Public Law and Legal Theory Working Paper Series, Working Paper No 230, March 2011; Empirical Legal Studies Center, Working Paper No 11-001; (2011) 110 Michican Law Review)

External linkMaher Dabbah, 'Cross-border merger control: challenges for developing and emerging economies', Report produced for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD (2011)

External linkDamien Geradin and Ianis Girgenson, 'Industrial Policya nd European Merger Control - A Reassessment' (TILEC Discussion Paper No 2011-053, 3 October 2011)

External linkPaul K Gorecki, 'Revising Merger Guidelines: Lessons from the Irish Experience', ESRI Working Paper No. 379 (March 2011)

External linkAkira Goto, 'Cross-border merger control in Japan' (Tenth Meeting of The OECD Global Forum on Competition (February 17, 2011, Paris, France))

External linkJohn B Kirkwood, 'Buyer Power and Merger Policy' (Working Paper, Draft 1, 1 April 2011) (at SSRN) (note, see 2012 version)

External linkJohn B Kirkwood, 'The Predictive Power of Merger Analysis' (Fall 2011) 56(3) Antitrust Bulletin 543 (see also Seattle University School of Law Research Paper No. 12-2) (SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1717945)

External linkLangevoort, Donald C., "The Behavioral Economics of Mergers and Acquisitions" (2011) Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works Paper 438

J Thomas Rosch and Darren S Tucker, 'Emerging Theories of Competitive Harm in Merger Enforcement' (October 2011) The Antitrust Source

External linkD Daniel Sokol and James A Fishkin, 'Response: Antitrust Merger Efficiencies in the Shadow of the Law' (2011) 64 Vanderbilt Law Review En Banc 45 [also available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1800420]

Response to: External linkJamie Henikoff Moffitt, 'Merging in the Shadow of the Law: The Case for Consistent Judicial Efficiency Analysis' (2010) 63 Vand. L. Rev. 1697

External linkNeeraj Tiwari, 'Merger Under the Regime of Competition Law: A Comparative Study of the Indian Legal Framework with EC and UK' (2011) 23(1) Bond Law Review 117

External linkEmma Trogen, 'National Merger Control - Towards further convergence in multi-jurisdictional filing processes' (2011) 4 Global Antitrust Review

Dan Wi, 'China's Anti-Monopoly Law and its Merger Enforcement: Convergence and Flexibility' (2011) Journal of International Economic Law 14(4) 807-844


External linkMats Bergman, Malcolm B Coate, Maria Jakobsson and Shawn W Ulrick, 'Merger Control in the European Union and the United States: Just the Facts' (2010) SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1565026

Oliver Budzinski, ‘An Institutional Analysis of the Enforcement Problems in Merger Control’ (2010) 6(2) European Competition Journal 445

External linkCerasi, Chizzolini and Ivaldi, 'The Impact of Mergers on the Degree of Competition in the Banking Industry' (Nota Di Lavoro, 95.2010)

External linkJulie Clarke, The International Regulation of Transnational Mergers (PHD Thesis, Qld UT, 2010)

External linkMalcolm B Coate and Jeffrey H Fischer, 'Why Markets Matter for Evidence-Based Merger Analysis' (January 2010) Oxera Agenda

External linkJ Farrell and C Shapiro, 'Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: an Economic Alternative to Market Definition' (February 2010)

External linkJamie Henikoff Moffitt, 'Merging in the Shadow of the Law: The Case for Consistent Judicial Efficiency Analysis' (2010) 63 Vand. L. Rev. 1697

Alison Oldale and Jorge Padilla, 'For welfare's sake? Balancing rivalry and efficiencies in horizontal mergers' (2010) 55(4) The Antitrust Bulletin 953

John J Parisi, 'Cooperation Among Competition Authorities in Merger Regulation' (2010) 43 Cornell Int'l LJ 55 55-72

Joseph J Simons and Malcolm B Coate, 'Upward Pressure on Price Analysis: Issues and Implications for Merger Policy' (August 2010) 6(2) European Competition Journal 377

Uphoff, Jonathan N. T. and Gilman, Alexis James, 'Managing Merger Control in the Era of Globalization' Antitrust Magazine, (1 March 2010) Vol. 24, No. 2, p. 79-85


Anurag Bana, 'Mergers & Acquisitions in a Multi-Jurisdictional Regulatory Framework' (Speech at International Conference of Jurists for Judicial Reform, 13 June 2009, London)

Bell, Robert B, 'Voluntary HSR Filings: A Modest Proposal' (2009) 23 Antitrust 69

External linkChoe Chongwoo and Chander Shekhar, Compulsory or Voluntary Pre-Merger Notification? Theory and Some Evidence,
February 2009 (unpublished)

Galloway, Jonathan, 'Convergence in International Merger Control' (2009) 5 Competition Law Review 179

William E Kovacic, 'Assessing the Quality of CompetitionPolicy: The Case of Horizontal Merger Enforcement' (Spring 2009) 5(1) Competition Policy International 129

external linkRobert A Lipstein and Werner Berg, 'Merger Remedies in the US and Europe' in GLG, The International Comparative Legal Guide to Merger Control 2009, Chapter 2

Sophie Papon, ‘Structural v behavioural remedies in merger control: a case to case analysis’ (2009) 30(1) European Competition Law Review 36-48

External linkMyojo, Satoshi and Hiroshi Ohashi, 'Assessing the Consequences of a Horizontal Merger and its Remedies in a Dynamic Environment', Research Paper, CIRJE-F-609, January 2009

Ramsey Shehadeh, Joseph larson and Ilene Knable Gotts, 'The Effect of Financial Distress on Business Investment: Implications for Merger Review' (Spring 2009) Antitrust 12


Dennis W Carlton, 'The Need to Measure the Effect of Merger Policy and How to Do It' (2008) 22 Antitrust 39

External linkJoseph Farrell and Carl Shapiro - Antitrust Evaluation of Horizontal Mergers: An Economic Alternative to Market Definition,
Working Paper, 9 December 2008

External linkHerbert J Hovenkamp, Mergers and Market Dominance, Research Paper, January 2008


External linkWilliam Rowley QC and Omar Wakil, 'The ICN five years on' (Global Competition Review, February 2007)


Aigner, Gisela, Oliver Budzinski and Arndt Christiansen, 'The Analysis of Coordinated Effects in EU Merger Control: Where Do We Stand after Sony/BMG and Impala?' (28 September 2006), Working Paper (28 pages) (SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=933548)

Akbar, Yusaf H and Gabriele GS Suder, 'The New EU Merger Regulation: Implications for EU-US Merger Strategies' (2006) 48 Thunderbird International Business Review 667

Caron Beaton-Wells, 'Mergers without markets? Unilateral effects analyisis in the United States and its prospects in Australia'
(2006) 34 Australian Business Law Review 186 (available at SSRN)

Budzinski, Oliver and Arndt Christiansen, 'Simulating the (Unilateral) Effects of Mergers: Implications of the Oracle/PeopleSoft Case' Working Paper (36 pages) (15 August 2006)

Clarke, Julie, ‘Multi-jurisdictional merger review procedures: a better way’ (2006) 14 Trade Practices Law Journal 90-109

External linkEzrachi, Ariel, 'Merger Control and Cross Border Transactions - A Pragmatic View on Cooperation, Convergence and What's in Between' (Working Paper No CCLP(L) 07, University of Oxford Centre for Competition Law and Policy, 2005) (22 pages)

External linkFackelmann, Christian R Dynamic Efficiency Considerations in EC Merger Control - An Intractable Subject or a Promising Chance for Innovation?, Working Paper 2006

Katri Paas, ‘Non-structural remedies in EU merger control’ (2006) 27(5) European Competition Law Review 209-216

External linkAndreas Strohm, 'Efficiencies in Merger Control: All you Always Wanted to Know and Were Afraid to Ask'


Anwar, Syed Tariq, 'EU's Competition Policy and the GE-Honeywell Merger Fiasco: Transatlantic Divergence and Consumer and Regulatory Issues' (2005) 47 Thunderbird International Business Review 601

Cabral, Luís MB, 'An Equilibrium Approach to International Merger Policy' (2005) 25 International Journal of Industrial Organization 739

Christopher A Whytock, 'A Rational Design Theory of Transgovernmentalism: The Case of EU-US Merger Review Cooperation' (2005) 23 Boston University International Law Journal 1

Joseph A Clougherty and Anming Zhang, 'Export Orientation and Domestic Merger Policy: Theory and Some Empirical Evidence' (2005) 38 Canadian Journal of Economics 778


External linkA Ezrachi, 'The Role of Voluntary Frameworks in Multinational Cooperation over Merger Control' (2004) 36 George Washington International Law Review 433 [abstract at SSRN]

J William Rowley QC and A Neil Campbell, 'Implementation of the International Competition Network's Recommended Practices for Merger Notification Procedures: Final Report' (2004) 5(1) Business Law International 110


Oliver Budzinski, 'Towards an International Governance of Transborder Mergers? - Competition Networks and Institutions between Centralism and Decentralism' (2004) 36(1) NYU Journal of International Law and Politics 1

Luís MB Cabral, 'International Merger Policy Coordination' (2003) 15 Japan and the World Economy 21

Chunlai Chen and Christopher Findlay, 'A Review of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions in APEC' (2003) 17 Asian-Pacific Economic Literature 14

John F Clifford, Mark Opashinov and Michael Hollinger, 'Efficiency-dependent Mergers: Lessons from Canada' (2003) 6 Global Competition Review 23

PriceWaterhouseCoopers A tax on mergers? Surveying the time and costs to business of multi-jurisdictional merger reviews A study commissioned by the International Bar Association and teh American Bar Association (June 2003)

J William Rowley QC, 'The Internationalisation of Merger Review: Global Solutions Require Both Words and Actions' (The 2003 Antitrust Conference: Antitrust Issues in Today's Economy, The Waldorf Astoria, New York, 18-19 March 2003)

J William Rowley and A Neil Campbell, 'A Comment on the Estimated Costs of Multi-Jurisdictional Merger Reviews' (September 2003) The Antitrust Source.

External linkSmitherman III, Charles W, 'The Future of Global Competition Governance: Lessons from the Transatlantic' (2003) 19(4) American University International Law Review 769-881

External linkGraeme Woodbridge and Philip L Williams, 'Antitrust Merger Policy: Lessons from the Australian Experience' (Working Paper 9600, NBER Working Paper Series)


Akbar, Yusaf, 'Grabbing Victory from the Jaws of Defeat: Can the GE/Honeywell Merger Facilitate International Antitrust Policy Co-operation?' (2002) 25 World Competition 403

Brown, Jay and Niamh Connery, 'Comparing US and EU Merger Review: Procedures, Principles and Whether Adopting the "Substantial Lessening of Competition" Test in the EU will Produce Greater Harmony after GE/Honeywell' (2002) 1 Antitrust Quarterly 2

External linkMiguel de la Mano - For the customer’s sake: The competitive effects of efficiencies in European merger control, Enterprise Papers No 11, 2002

Notification and Procedures Subgroup of the Mergers Working Group, 'Report on the Costs and Burdens of Multijurisdictional Merger Review' (First Annual Conference, Napoli, Italy, September 28-29, 2002)


Aktas, Nihat, Eric de Bodt, Michel Levasseur and Andre Schmitt, 'The Emerging Role of the European Commission in Merger and Acquisition Monitoring: the Boeing-McDonnell Douglas Case' (2001) 7 European Financial Management 447

William Baer and Ronald C Redcay, 'Solving CompetitionProblems in Merger Control: The Requirements for an Effective Divestiture Remedy (2001) 69 Goerge Washington Law Review 915

Blumenthal, William, 'Reconciling the Debate over Merger Remedies: A Discussant's Proposed Decision Rule' (2001) 69 George Washington Law Review 978

Baer, William J and R C Redcay, 'Solving Competition Problems in Merger Control: The Requirements for an Effective Divestiture Remedy' (2001) 69 George Washington Law Review 915

Ezrachi, Ariel, 'Limitations on the Extraterritorial Reach of the European Merger Regulation' (2001) 22 European Competition Law Review 137

External linkMalcolm MacLaren, 'The GE/Honeywell Merger Case: Reaching the Limits of International Competition Policymaking' (2001) 2(12) German Law Journal 1

McDavid, Janet L, Phillip A Proger, Michael J Reynolds, J William Rowley QC and A Neil Campbell, 'Best Practices for the Review of International Mergers: a discussion draft' (2001) Global Competition Review 27


Black, Bernard S, 'Is This the First International Merger Wave?' (2000) 4(4) The M&A Lawyer 20

Black, Bernard S., 'The First International Merger Wave (and the Fifth and Last U.S. Wave)' (2000) 51 University of Miami Law Review 799

Bian, Lin and DG McFedtridge, 'The Efficiencies Defence in Merger Cases: Implications of Alternative Standards' (2000) 33 Canadian Journal of Economics 297

Corones, Stephen, 'The Treatment of Global Mergers: An Australian Perspective' (2000) 20 Northwestern Journal of International Law and Business 155

External linkInternational Competition Policy Advisory Committee (ICPAC), Final Report to the Attorney General and Assistant Attorney General for Antitrust (2000)
See, in particular, chapters 2-3 relating to merger control.

External linkRowley, J William, Omar K Wakil and A Neil Campbell, Streamlining International Merger Control, EC Merger Control 10th Anniversary Conference, Brussels, Belgium, 14 September 2000


JF Rill and C Wilson, ‘Selected Recommendations for Substantive and Procedural Convergence in the Multi-Jurisdictional Merger Context’ (199) International Antitrust Law and Policy 368.

Rowley, J William and A Neil Campbell, 'Multi-Jurisdictional Merger Review – Is It Time for a Common Form Filing Treaty?' (April 1999)


Banks, J D, 'The Development of the Concept of Extraterritoriality under European Merger Law and its Effectiveness under the Merger Regulation following the Boeing/McDonnell Douglas Decision 1997' [1998] European Competition Law Review 306

Mary Coleman, Christopher Pleatsikas, and David Teece, 'The Merger Guidelines in the United States, Australia and New Zealand: An Economic Perspective' (1998) 6 Trade Practices Law Journal 153

Michael G Cowie, 'The Global Spread of Antitrust Enforcement Directed at Mergers and Acquisitions' (1998) 43 Antitrust Bulletin 917


A Neil Campbell and Jeffrey P Roode, 'International Mergers: The Highest Common Denominator Effect' (August 1997) Global Competition Review


R Gilbert and SC Sunshine, 'Incorporating Dynamic Efficiency Concerns in Merger ANalysis: The Use of Innovation Markets' (1995) 63 Antitrust Law Journal569-601


Jennifer Antognini-O'Neill, 'Conflicts in International Merger Enforcement: The Proposed de Havilland Merger' (1993) 9 Connecticut Journal of International Law 87

Deanna Conn, 'Assessing the Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements and New Rules of Origin on the Extraterritorial Application of Antitrust Law to International Mergers' (1993) 93 Columbia Law Review 119


External linkSchumann, Laurence, Robert P Rogers, James D Reitzes, Case Studies of the Price Effects of Horizontal Mergers, (Federal Trade Commission, Bureau of Economics, April 1992) (93 pages)


Elzinga, Kenneth G, 'The Antimerger Law: Pyrrhic Victories?' (1969) 12 Journal of Law and Economics 43


Adams, Walter, 'Dissolution, Divorcement, Divestiture: The Pyrrhic Victories of Antitrust' (1951) 27 Indiana Law Journal 1


International competition policy (including economics)

For articles relating to competition policy and economics generally, see my International Competition Policy reading room.